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  • June 1995:  “On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorithms” by Michael Persinger (Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 80, pp. 791-799):  “Within the last two decades (Persinger, Ludwig, & Ossenkopp, 1973) a potential has emerged which was improbable but which is now marginally feasible. This potential is the technical capability to influence directly the major portion of the approximately six billion brains of the human species without mediation through classical sensory modalities by generating neural information within a physical medium within which all members of the species are immersed.  The historical emergence of such possibilities, which have ranged from gunpowder to atomic fission, have resulted in major changes in the social evolution that occurred inordinately quickly after the implementation. Reduction of the risk of the inappropriate application of these technologies requires the continued and open discussion of their realistic feasibility and implications within the scientific and public domain.”


  • January 1998:  As president of the French National Consultative Committee of Ethics of Life and Health Sciences (Comité Consultatif National d’Ethique pour les Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé), Jean-Pierre Changeux (director of the Unit of Molecular Neurobiology at the Pasteur Institute) told the Committee’s annual public meeting that “neuroscience also poses potential risks, he said, arguing that advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized, it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance, he predicted. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing. These are far from being science-fiction concerns, said Changeux, and constitute ‘a serious risk to society’.”
  • 2008:  Emerging Cognitive Neuroscience and Related Technologies by the Committee on Military and Intelligence Methodology for Emergent Neurophysiological and Cognitive/Neural Research in the Next Two Decades, National Research Council (National Academies Press), pp. 127, 185: 
    As cognitive neuroscience and related technologies become more pervasive, using technology for nefarious purposes becomes easier.  Moreover, the triggers and observables become less obvious to the analyst and the collector…However, the types of experiments being done may be more telling than the type of equipment needed.  The same equipment might be needed for medical and for disruptive neuropsychopharmacological experiments.  It could be asked, What types of experiments are being done?  How are the experiments being controlled and monitored, and why were they chosen?  How would human experimentation be conducted outside accepted informed-consent limits?” 
    Covert or classified military research findings will probably not be submitted for publication in the international literature, so they will escape the attention of publishers and peer reviewers.  Thus, human-subjects protection in this sector of biomedical research cannot be guaranteed or assessed.  Military use of advances in biomedical science is extremely difficult to investigate, because of the classified status of most such research.  To safeguard their national security, nations that are actively pursuing biotechnology useful to the military are highly unlikely to advertise their accomplishments in the biomedical literature or elsewhere.  Moreover, an inverse relationship seems apparent:  countries that are most likely to be pursuing neuroscientific and other biotechnological developments for military or intelligence use are least likely to be direct or transparent about such activities.” 


  • 1978:  Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications by James C. Lin (Springfield, Illinois:  Thomas), p. 176:  “It is clear from the material treated in Chapter 3 that appropriate pulse-modulated microwaves can control or disrupt the behavior of experimental animals in terms of induced auditory stimulation, as does conventional acoustic energy.  Microwave auditory stimulation therefore appears to be a useful research tool for specialized psychophysical experimentation on the auditory system.
  • 30 July 1982:  Final Report On Biotechnology Research Requirements For Aeronautical Systems Through The Year 2000, Volume II (“Proceedings of Biotechnology Research Requirements”) prepared for The Air Force Office of Scientific Research in cooperation with The Air Force Aerospace Medical Division by Southwest Research Institute (San Antonio, Texas):
    • “As the technological race continues, knowledge of mechanisms of action of RFR [Radiofrequency Radiation] with living systems and the assessment of pulsed RFR effects will demonstrate the vulnerability of humans to complex pulsed electromagnetic radiation fields in combination with other stresses.” (P. 181)
    • 4.  RFR Forced Disruptive Phenomena
      • a. Objectives  (1) Define the ability of RFR to interrupt, degrade or direct human central nervous system functioning.  (2) Define the ability of RFR to interrupt or degrade physiological functions such as cardiac output and respiration.  (3) Define the ability of RFR to interact with chemical and other physical agents, and to assess their combined impact on humans.
      • b. Approach  Currently available data allow the projection that specially generated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose powerful and revolutionary antipersonnel military threats.  Electroshock therapy indicates the ability of induced electric current to completely interrupt mental functioning for short periods of time, to obtain cognition for longer periods and to restructure emotional responses over prolonged intervals.  Experience with electroshock therapy, RFR experiments and the increasing understanding of the brain as an electrically mediated organ suggest the serious probability that impressed electromagnetic fields can be disruptive of purposeful behavior and may be capable of directing and/or interrogating such behavior.  Further, the passage of approximately 100 milliampere through the myocardium can lead to cardiac standstill and death, again pointing to a speed-of-light weapons effect…The behavioral experiments should include:  psychological observation and testing, electroencephalographic analyses and in situ electrode recording work.  While initial attention should be toward degradation of human performance through thermal loading and electromagnetic field effects, subsequent work should address the possibilities of directing and interrogating mental functioning, using externally applied fields within the possibility of a revolutionary capability to defend against hostile actions, and to collect intelligence data prior to conflict onset.” (P. 183)
    • Timeline on p. 178 shows “RFR Forced Disruptive Phenomena” [experiments] as lasting from about 1987 until 2010.
  • 1983:  CIA states in its Human Resource Exploitation Training Manual that “The purpose of all coercive techniques is to induce psychological regression in the subject by bringing a superior outside force to bear on his will to resist. Regression is basically a loss of autonomy, a reversion to an earlier behavioral level. As the subject regresses, his learned personality traits fall away in reverse chronological order. He begins to lose the capacity to carry out the highest creative activities, to deal with complex situations, to cope with stressful interpersonal relationships, or to cope with repeated frustrations.” (see photographic reproduction at the National Security Archive of George Washington University’s website)
  • 25 July 1994:  “The advantage of directed energy weapons over conventional ones is deniability. Against whom is such deniability aimed?…Instead, deniability must be aimed at the American people, who do not sanction the imprisonment, much less execution, of individuals without a trial” from “The Revolution in Military Affairs and Conflict Short of War”, by Steven Metz and James O. Kievit (US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute), p. 8
  • 2003:  “Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Microwave Exposure” by John A. D’Andrea (Chief Scientist, Naval Health Research Center Detachment, Brooks City-Base [San Antonio], Texas), Eleanor R. Adair (Air Force Senior Scientist Emeritus), and John O. de Lorge, Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S39-S62 (2003), sponsored by awards from Office of Naval Research to the first author (Work Unit Nos.: 601153N.MRO4508.518-60285 and 601153N.M4023.60182); “This article is a US government work” (P. S39):  “RESEARCH NEEDS …However, all of the published research on behavioral alteration and work stoppage has been conducted on laboratory animals; none has been conducted on human beings. Somehow, equivalent behavioral experiments must be conducted on human volunteers to (1) confirm the purported ‘hazardous’ nature of RF exposure on performance and (2) to gain some insights into the changes in body temperatures that may be expected to occur. Extrapolation to human beings of thresholds of reversible changes in animal behavior, while useful as interim bases for standard setting, must be superceded by hard data on the species in question, homosapiens.” (P. S58)
  • 14 January 2007:  “’Maybe I can fix you, or electronically neuter you, so it’s safe to release you into society, so you won’t come back and kill me,’ [Pentagon adviser John] Alexander says. It’s only a matter of time before technology allows that scenario to come true, he continues…”:  “Mind Games” by Sharon Weinberger, in the Washington Post




  • ELECTRONIC (bioelectromagnetics has progressed enormously since Luigi Galvani’s experiments in the 1700s, which together with Tasers and electroshock treatment are all that most people know of the subject):
    • Scientific and technological articles detailing much of the current unclassified technology
    • Note that many devices openly sold to the public inflict “low-tech” means of electronic harassment that apparently cater to those seeking revenge.  Two examples should suffice to give an idea:
    • 100 US unclassified patents (a selection) dealing with technology for externally induced neurological manipulation (including subliminal), including:
      • 5 August 1974:  US Patent 3,951,134 for “Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring and altering brain waves” filed, involving “Apparatus for and method of sensing brain waves at a position remote from a subject whereby electromagnetic signals of different frequencies are simultaneously transmitted to the brain of the subject in which the signals interfere with one another to yield a waveform which is modulated by the subject’s brain waves. The interference waveform which is representative of the brain wave activity is re-transmitted by the brain to a receiver where it is demodulated and amplified. The demodulated waveform is then displayed for visual viewing and routed to a computer for further processing and analysis. The demodulated waveform also can be used to produce a compensating signal which is transmitted back to the brain to effect a desired change in electrical activity therein.”
      • 31 October 1997:  US Patent 6,017,302 filed for “Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems” as follows: “The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or sexual arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps treatment of insomnia, tremors, epileptic seizures, and anxiety disorders. There is further application as a nonlethal weapon that can be used in law enforcement standoff situations, for causing drowsiness and disorientation in targeted subjects… Experiments have shown that atmospheric acoustic stimulation of deeply subliminal intensity can excite in a human subject the sensory resonances near 1/2 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The 1/2 Hz resonance is characterized by ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, drowsiness, a tonic smile, tenseness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz that is used. The observable effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include a slowing of certain cortical functions, sleepiness, and, after long exposure, dizziness and disorientation… there is the possibility of mischievous use as well. For instance, with small modifications the method of FIG. 1 can be employed to imperceptibly modulate the air flow in air conditioning or heating systems that serve a home, office building, or embassy, for covert manipulation of the nervous systems of occupants.” [Emphasis added.]
    • Note that US patent law requires that a patented machine must “operate to perform the intended purpose” and that “a patent cannot be obtained upon a mere idea or suggestion”.  Note also that the first patent above is so old that it is most probably in the public domain, since US patents are generally valid for only 20 years after filing.
    • Some other unclassified patents and reports concerning remote detection or manipulation of the human body and mind:
      • August 1975:  “Feasibility Study for Design of a Biocybernetic Communication System” by Dr. Lawrence R. Pinneo and D.J. Hall for the Advanced Research Projects Agency (US DoD), also available for purchase from the US Department of Commerce’s National Technical Information Service, NTIS Order Number AD-A017 405/2 (see also media report of some interim results at “Mind-Reading Computer”, Time, 1 July 1974):
        • “The purpose of this three-year research program was to test the feasibility of designing a close-coupled, two-way communication link between man and computer using biological information from muscles of the vocal apparatus and the electrical activity of the brain during overt and covert (verbal thinking) speech.”  (P. 1).
        • “EEG responses for covert speech mimicked those of overt speech for the same subject, electrode and spoken word. When sources of error were reduced as much as possible, correct computer classification rates ranged from 52 to 72%, which was significant at p < 0.001. We conclude that both overt and covert speech can be identified by computer classification of electrophysiological responses and that a practical biocybernetic communication system is feasible, provided that sources of error can be removed.”  (P. 3)
      • December 1979:  “Neurophysiologic Effects of Radiofrequency and Microwave Radiation” by W. Ross Adey in Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, V.55, #11, pp. 1079-1093, discussed various effects including:  (1) “Wever in Germany has done interesting experiments in human subjects in underground chambers. Shielded from weak environmental electric fields, the free-running 24-hour cycle has a period as long as 26.6 hours in some subjects. Imposition of a 10 Hz., 2.5 V/m. field, which produces about 10-7/V/cm. in the tissue, caused the rhythm to change back toward 24 hours. Turning the field off again after eight days was then followed by cycles lasting 36.7 hours, as measured by sleep and wakefulness.” (p. 1083); (2) “Experiments in our own laboratory have shown an influence of similar weak fields when they are imposed across the chamber in which a monkey is sitting. They affect its ability to estimate the passage of time in the absence of external cues.” (p. 1084); (3) “In the context of these experiments, it should be mentioned that there is a medical therapeutic device, known as the LIDA, developed in the Soviet Union and patented in this country. It is designed for the treatment of psychoneurotic illness and emotional disorders. It emits pulsed radio signals up to one tenth of a second long at rates up to two per second, with a maximum generator output of 40 to 80 watts…Reports of clinical tests in the U.S.S.R. in juveniles and adults suffering from emotional disorders are said to have been favorable.” (p. 1085)
      • July 1986:  “An X-Band Microwave Life-Detection System” by Chen, Kun-Mu; Misra, Devendra; Wang, Huei; Chuang, Huey-Ru; Postow, Elliot in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. BME-33, Issue 7 (July 1986):  “An X-band microwave life-detection system has been developed for detecting the heartbeat and breathing of human subjects lying on the ground at a distance of about 30 m or located behind a cinder block wall. The basic principle of the system is to illuminate the subject with a low-intensity microwave beam, and then from the back-scattered microwave signal, extract the heart and breathing signals that modulate it.”
      • 28 December 1989:  US Patent 5,159,703 filed by Oliver M. Lowery of Norcross, Georgia for “Silent subliminal presentation system” involving:  “A silent communications system in which nonaural carriers, in the very low or very high audio frequency range or in the adjacent ultrasonic frequency spectrum, are amplitude or frequency modulated with the desired intelligence and propagated acoustically or vibrationally, for inducement into the brain”.  The system included “amplitude modulated carrier means for generating signals located in non-aural portions of the audio and in the lower portion of the ultrasonic frequency spectrum said signals modulated with information to be perceived by a listener’s brain”.  “Several decades of scientific study indicate that subliminal messages can influence a human’s attitudes and behavior. Subliminal, in these discussions, can be defined as ‘below the threshold of audibility to the conscious mind.’ To be effective however, the subliminally transmitted information (called affirmations by those in the profession) must be presented to the listener’s ear in such a fashion that they can be perceived and ‘decoded’ by the listener’s subconscious mind…the subliminal presentation described here is inaudible i.e., high audio or ultrasonic frequencies, the affirmations are presented at a constant, high amplitude level, and they occupy their own “clear channel”, non-masked frequency allocations. If desired, the previously described ‘foreground’ music or other material can be added to the tape through use of an audio mixer. The ‘silent’ recordings are inaudible to the user or by others present and are therefore very effective for use during periods of sleep or when in the presence of others. Additionally, the basic requirements of subliminal stimulation are met. That is, the affirmations are efficiently transmitted to the ear and, while undetected by the conscious mind, are perceived by and efficiently decoded by the subconscious mind.”  According to a source cited in Jon Ronson, The Men who Stare at Goats (Simon & Schuster, 2005), p. 182, the US used subliminal messaging against Iraqi soldiers during the first Gulf War.  This particular patented technique is currently in use by several companies, including:
        • Altered States (a New Zealand firm) for its “Silent Subliminals” product, and also makes the claim that the technique was also used by the US “during attacks in Iraq and Kuwait”;
        • Whole Brain Learning Institute for its “BrainStorm Silent Subliminals” product.  One site promoting the product also mentions “a March 23,1991 Reuters news release from Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, attributed the deserting of Iraqi soldiers to the ‘first known military use of the new, high tech type of subliminal messages referred to as ultra-high frequency (UHF) “Silent Subliminals” by secretly programming Iraqi radio stations with patriotic Iraqi music, embedded with subliminal messages encouraging a peaceful surrender”; and
        • Holosync for its “The End” product.
      • 5 July 1991:  “Human ultrasonic speech perception” by ML Lenhardt, R Skellett, P Wang, and AM Clarke in Science, Vol. 253, No. 5015, pp. 82-85:  “Bone-conducted ultrasonic hearing has been found capable of supporting frequency discrimination and speech detection in normal, older hearing-impaired, and profoundly deaf human subjects. When speech signals were modulated into the ultrasonic range, listening to words resulted in the clear perception of the speech stimuli and not a sense of high-frequency vibration.”
      • 3 December 1993:  US Patent 5,448,501 for “Electronic life detection system” filed, involving “The invention relates to an electronic life detection system, in particular for the searching for buried persons and the surveillance of buildings, having a microwave transmitting/receiving device for generating and radiating microwaves into an area to be investigated and for registering the microwave signal reflected from the area under surveillance and modulated with the frequencies corresponding to the life functions of any living beings present in the area, which device has a first signal-conditioning device, and a second signal-conditioning device.”
      • 5 April 1994:  US Patent 5,507,291 for “Method and an associated apparatus for remotely determining information as to person’s emotional state” filed: “In a method for remotely determining information relating to a person’s emotional state, a waveform energy having a predetermined frequency and a predetermined intensity is generated and wirelessly transmitted towards a remotely located subject. Waveform energy emitted from the subject is detected and automatically analyzed to derive information relating to the individual’s emotional state. Physiological or physical parameters of blood pressure, pulse rate, pupil size, respiration rate and perspiration level are measured and compared with reference values to provide information utilizable in evaluating interviewee’s responses or possibly criminal intent in security sensitive areas.”
      • 22 August 1994:  “A Subliminal Dr. Strangelove.  Mind: Using The Power Of Hidden Suggestions, This Russian Scientist Tries To Rewire The Brain” by John Barry, Newsweek, regarding Igor Smirnov and his Institute of Psycho-Correction in Moscow:  “Using electroencephalographs, he measures brain waves, then uses computers to create a map of the subconscious and various human impulses, such as anger or the sex drive. Then, through taped subliminal messages, he claims to physically alter that landscape with the power of suggestion. At the University of Michigan, Howard Shevrin has also studied the relationship between brain responses and the unconscious, but he has doubts about therapeutic applications. ‘I’m not sure this should be tampered with. The effects could be harmful.’”
      • 10 January 1995:  US Patent 5,629,678 for “Personal tracking and recovery system” filed, involving “Apparatus for tracking and recovering humans utilizes an implantable transceiver incorporating a power supply and actuation system allowing the unit to remain implanted and functional for years without maintenance. The implanted transmitter may be remotely actuated, or actuated by the implantee. Power for the remote-activated receiver is generated electromechanically through the movement of body muscle. The device is small enough to be implanted in a child, facilitating use as a safeguard against kidnapping, and has a transmission range which also makes it suitable for wilderness sporting activities. A novel biological monitoring feature allows the device to be used to facilitate prompt medical dispatch in the event of heart attack or similar medical emergency…We claim:  1. A transceiver device implantable in a human body comprising:  a triggerable radio frequency transmitter, a power source for powering said transmitter, triggering means for activating said transmitter, receiver means allowing the detection of an externally generated information signal…This system utilizes user-activated transmitters operating at a frequency of 460 MHz, as spelled out in the Code of Federal Regulations chapter 47 part 90. These inexpensive transmitters are known as Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB’s). The associated satellite network is capable of locating a transmitting EPIRB anywhere on the face of the globe.”
      • December 1998:  “RVSM [Radar Vital Signs Monitor]” by Geisheimer, J. in IEEE Potentials, Vol. 17, Issue 5 (Dec1998/Jan 1999), pp. 21-24:  “However, researchers at the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) are exploring radar’s ability to measure physiological data in humans. The new radar measures tiny movements of the human body caused by respiration and the beating heart. The Radar Vital Signs Monitor (RVSM) technology was originally designed for use during the Olympics to measure the vitals signs of athletes. RVSM technology, however, has other applications including law enforcement, telemedicine, heart disease screening, security and disaster search.”
      • 17 November 2002:  “Remote control brain sensor” in BBC News:  “Scientists have developed a sensor that can record brainwaves without the need for electrodes to be inserted into the brain or even placed on the scalp…Now a team from the Centre for Physical Electronics at the University of Sussex has developed a far more user-friendly technique.  From a distance  Instead of measuring electric current flow through a fixed-on electrode, the new method takes advantage of the latest developments in sensor technology to measure electric fields from the brain without actually having to make direct contact with the head…He said the new system provided a way to do this effectively, and because it was non-invasive it was completely safe, and more accurate because it did not interfere with the electrical fields generated by the body…The same group of scientists has already made remote-sensing ECG units which can detect heartbeats with no connections at all.”  (See also the “Electric potential sensors as generic tools for basic technology” page for the Centre for Physical Electronics and Quantum Technology at the University of Sussex.)
      • 14 May 2003:  “GPS implant makes debut” by Sherrie Gossett in WorldNetDaily:  “Applied Digital Solutions, a technology development company, yesterday said it has created and successfully field-tested a prototype of a GPS implant for humans.  The dimensions of this initial ‘personal location device’ or PLD, prototype are said to be 2.5 inches in diameter by 0.5 inches in depth, roughly the size of a pacemaker.  As the process of miniaturization proceeds in the coming months, the company said it expects to be able to shrink the size of the device to at least one-half and perhaps to as little as one-tenth the current size.  Applied said the technology it used for the device builds on U.S. Patent No. 5,629,678 for a ‘personal tracking and recovery system,’ which Applied Digital acquired in 1999…When WND reported in April of 2002 that the company planned such implant technology, Applied Digital spokesman Matthew Cossolotto accused WND of intentionally printing falsehoods.  Less than three weeks later, the company issued a press release announcing that it was accelerating development on a GPS implant.”
      • November 2003:  “Hand-Held Ultrasonic Through-the-Wall Monitoring of Stationary and Moving People” by Jaycor, [Air Force Research Laboratory] AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-268, Final Technical Report, November 2003, p. 1:  “A man-portable ultrasonic TWS [Through-the-Wall Surveillance] system prototype was designed, built and tested under the effort and will be made available for demonstration and evaluation purposes.”
      • 12 April 2004:  US Patent 7,350,522 for “Scanning method for applying ultrasonic acoustic data to the human neural cortex” filed with the Sony Corporation as assignee, including “The present invention solves the foregoing drawbacks by providing a non-invasive system and process for generating/projecting sensory data (visual, audio, taste, smell or touch) within/onto the human neural cortex.”
      • 1 December 2005:  “An overview of through the wall surveillance for homeland security” by S.E. Borek, in Applied Imagery and Pattern Recognition Workshop, 2005, IEEE, Proceedings, 34th:  “The Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/IF), under sponsorship of the Department of Justice’s (DOJ), National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Office of Science and Technology (OS&T), is currently developing and evaluating advanced through the wall surveillance (TWS) technologies. These technologies are partitioned into two categories: inexpensive, handheld systems for locating an individual(s) behind a wall or door; and portable, personal computer (PC) based standoff systems to enable the determination of events during critical incident situations. The technologies utilized are primarily focused on active radars operating in the UHF, L, S (ultra wideband (UWB)), X, and Ku bands.”
      • 3 January 2006:  “New Device Will Sense Through Concrete Walls” by Donna Miles, American Forces Press Service:  “By simply holding the portable, handheld device up to a wall, users will be able to detect movements as small as breathing, he said…The Radar Scope will give warfighters the capability to sense through a foot of concrete and 50 feet beyond that into a room, Baranoski explained.”
      • 13 December 2006:  “Even if they’re off, cellphones allow FBI to listen in” by Kevin Coughlin (Seattle Times); note that the technology allows for precisely locating a person as well
      • 11-13 April 2007:  “Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of Through-Wall Noise Radar Data for Human Activity Characterization” by Chieh-Ping Lai, Qing Ruan, and Ram M. Narayanan, in Signal Processing Applications for Public Security and Forensics, 2007, SAFE ’07, IEEE Workshop on:  “Different parts of the human body have different movements when a person is performing different physical activities. Also, there is great interest to remotely detect human heartbeat and breathing for applications involving anti-terrorism and search-and-rescue. Ultrawideband noise radar systems are attractive because they are covert and immune from interference. The conventional time-frequency analyses of human activity (usually including the short time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD), and wavelet analysis) are not generally adaptive to nonlinear and nonstationary signals. If one can decompose the noisy baseband signal containing human Doppler information and extract only the human-induced Doppler from it, the identification of various human activities becomes easier. We therefore propose to use a recently developed method, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), since it is adaptive to nonlinear and nonstationary signals. When used with noise-like radar data, it is useful for covert detection of human movement. The HHT based signal processing can effectively improve pattern recognition and reject unwanted uncorrelated noise.”  [Emphasis added.]
      • June 2007:  “Through-the-Wall Radar Life Detection and Monitoring” by Lubecke, V.M., Boric-Lubecke, O., Host-Madsen, A., and Fathy, A.E. in Microwave Symposium, 2007. IEEE/MTT-S International, 3-8 June 2007, pp. 769-772:  “Technology that can be used to unobtrusively detect and monitor the presence of human subjects from a distance and through barriers can be a powerful tool for law enforcement, military, and health monitoring applications. To this end, ultra-wide band radar has shown promise for real-time subject imaging, and compact Doppler radar solutions have demonstrated potential for providing non-invasive detection and monitoring of cardiopulmonary activity for multiple subjects. These technologies work through walls and other obstructions, and can even leverage the presence of ambient radio signals to provide a covert means to detect, isolate, and physiologically monitor multiple human subjects from a remote position.”  [Emphasis added.]
      • 1 November 2008:  Times Online (UK) reports that “Neuroscientists at Arizona State University say they have developed a form of ultrasound that can penetrate the skull and stimulate brain circuits to alter their behaviour. They report in the journal PLoS One that their pulses of low-powered ultrasound can prompt specific neurons in the brain to fire, without damaging any delicate tissues…He adds that the technology may ultimately also be used to enhance video-game experiences or even create artificial memories in similar manner to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s character in Total Recall. ‘Imagine taking a vacation without even going anywhere,’ Tyler says…Ultrasound can also be used remotely, with no need for potentially risky implants for electrodes.”
    • Various Directed Energy Weapons and “Non-Lethal” Weapons – see, as mere examples, the following:
      • Article “Electromagnetic Directed Energy Weapons for Eliminating Electronic Systems” at Czech Army website)
      • 13 December 1957:  US Army Frankford Arsenal, Report TN-1097 (“River Styx”, declassified):  “Absorption by living tissues of electromagnetic radiation in the one to ten thousand megacycle frequency range produces thermal effects which are shown to grossly degrade bodily functions.  A flux of 10 watts/cm2 is indicated as being lethal for humans in an irradiation time of one second or less…It is shown that lethal irradiation of exposed troops within the range region of zero to 5000 meters in a 1-second irradiation time can be obtained with a weapon of 900 kw peak radiating power which can be mounted on two vehicles each equivalent to the T113 chassis, so designed as to meet Phase I air transportability requirements, and that the lethal rate at any range region within 5000 meters is approximately 1000 casualties per minute per division; not counting casualties of lesser severity than immediate kills” (Abstract, p. iv); “This report presents a study to determine whether the purely thermal effects of microwave irradiation of living tissue and of other materials have potential for military application now or in the foreseeable future…The tactical and strategic combat superiority that may be achieved by these applications is so vast as to justify their being considered revolutionary” (p. 3); “The physiological aspects of microwave irradiation will require a program leading to early explicit experimental confirmation and evaluation of critical parameters.  A few of these are:  lethal dosage rates, damage persistence for less than lethal doses, variations of damage and damage rates with frequency, psychological effects, organic sensitivities, and genetic consequences.” (p. 47); “Should developments in this type weapon be undertaken and should they become known to the public, charges from public and foreign sources that this is an atrocity weapon may be made and should be anticipated.” (p. 53)
      • 2 July 1969:  “Method of Producing Locally Occurring Infrasound”, US Patent 3,612,211 filed, involving:  “It is known that infrasound, i.e., inaudible acoustical waves of less than 20 Hz. can have physiological and neurophysiological effects, and experimental data indicates that those in the range of 5 Hz. to 7 Hz. can effect the alpha wave pattern of the human brain…Because of the effects of these waves on the human body and brain, it has been theorized that infrasound might be useful in warfare because it cannot be detected by the human ear, and it has a potential for harming or demobilizing an enemy subjected to it…A further object is to provide a system for producing infrasound, but utilizing extremely small sources for the infrasound energy, as compared with previously available sources…While the invention described in the foregoing specification has obvious utility for laboratory experimentation, it may also have utility as a military weapon or for riot control, and it may be useful for submarine warfare, in which case intersecting beams could be transmitted through the water and a hull to occupants inside.”
      • 1976:  United Nations General Assembly, Preparatory Committee for the Special Session of the General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament (A/AC.187/30, 2 May 1977), p. 60 (from Letter of 28 September 1976 from the USSR Minister for Foreign Affairs to the UN Secretary-General, A/31/232):  “The Soviet Union is ready to propose an approach which would include among new types of weapons of mass destruction any types of weapons based on qualitatively new principles of action – according to the method of use and the targets to be attacked or the nature of their impact. Some examples are ray weapons capable of affecting blood and intracellular plasma, infrasound weapons designed to damage internal organs and affect human behaviour, or genetic weapons whose use would affect the mechanism of heredity. If we take into account the fact that the forward march of science never stops, it is not difficult to realize that possibilities for the development of even more dangerous types of weapons may emerge in the future.”  [No permanent link to this document on the UN’s website is publicly available but the document can be found there.]
      • 1994:  United Nations General Assembly, 49th Session, Item 139 of the provisional agenda, United Nations Decade of International Law, Report of the Secretary-General (A/49/323, 19 August 1994), p. 31:  “104. In view of the challenges raised by the development of new weapons, the ICRC [International Committee of the Red Cross], in the framework of its efforts to alert the international community to the humanitarian implications of those weapons, convened a meeting of experts in Geneva on 31 May and 1 June 1994, in response to the request addressed to it by the Group of Government Experts to prepare working documents proposing amendments to the various sections of the 1980 Convention, and not only to the section concerning anti-personnel mines. The meeting discussed blinding laser weapons, small-calibre weapon systems, naval mines, microwave and infrasound weapons, allegedly non-lethal chemical weapons and the dangers inherent in the misuse of results of genetic research.”  [No permanent link to this document on the UN’s website is publicly available but the document can be found there.]
      • 1995:  “NONLETHAL WEAPONS:  Technologies, Legalities, and Potential Policies” from Airpower Journal, Special Edition 1995, by Maj Joseph W. Cook, III; Maj David P. Fiely; Maj Maura T. McGowan:  “Infrasound. This is a powerful ultralow frequency (ULF) sonic weapon that can penetrate buildings and vehicles and can be directional and tunable. As a weapon infrasound, lowfrequency sound entails the same concerns as highintensity sound. After being exposed to highintensity infrasound, a subject suffers from disorientation and reduced ability to perform simple sensorymotor tasks.68”  Footnote 68 refers to Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Anti-personnel Weapons (London: Taylor and Francis, 1978), p. 204.
      • 8 February 1996:  “Non-lethal tetanizing weapon”, US Patent 5,675,103 filed (invented by J.E. Herr), involving “A non-lethal weapon for temporarily immobilizing a target subject by means of muscular tetanization in which the tetanization is produced by conducting a precisely-modulated electrical current through the target…The present invention functions by immobilizing the target person or animal at a distance. It performs this function by producing skeletal muscle tetanization in the target subject. Tetanization is the stimulation of muscle tissue by a series of electrical impulses of such frequency as to merge individual muscle contractions into a single sustained contraction.”
      • 24 February 1997:  Misleadingly entitled “Engine disabling weapon”, US Patent 5,952,600 filed (invented by J.E. Herr), it involves not only “A non-lethal weapon for disabling an engine such as that of a fleeing car by means of a high voltage discharge that perturbs or destroys the electrical circuits” but also “The present invention functions by immobilizing the target person or animal at a distance. It performs this function by producing skeletal muscle tetanization in the target subject.”
      • 14 January 1999:  Statements on nonlethal weapons issued in a report on the environment, security and foreign policy by the European Parliament were based on a public hearing on 5 February 1998 on “HAARP and so-called non-lethal weapons” before Parliament’s Subcommittee on Security and Disarmament:  “So-called ‘non-lethal’ weapons are not a new type of weapon but have existed for many years in such forms as water cannons, rubber bullets and tear gas. However, at the present time, more and more advanced weapon techniques have been developed which are labelled non-lethal despite the fact that they can cause extensive damage and even result in invalidity or death…One example is acoustic weapons which are capable of confusing and disorientating and thereby neutralising an enemy by producing a low level of sound, known as infra-sound…There is no effective legislation governing non-lethal weapons. Only a small number of non-lethal weapons and techniques can be banned through the interpretation of various arms control regulations…”
      • March 2000:  Peter A. Schlesinger, President, HSV Technologies, Inc., presents paper on “Vehicle Disabling Weapon” at National Defense Industrial Association, Non-Lethal Defense IV, 20-22 Mar 2000:  “A means of directly injecting radio-frequency electrical current into the electronic circuits of vehicles is described…Its theoretical two kilometer range greatly exceeds that of other non-ballistic weapons.”  Also refers to both of J.E. Herr’s patents above.
      • Police in US increasingly use nonlethal weapons (see, for example, “Police Explore Nonlethal Weapons” by Luis Cabrera, Los Angeles Times, 18 June 2000, p. A-4; “Nonlethal weapons draw praise, caution” by Jonathan Saltzman, Boston Globe, 23 October 2004, etc.)
      • “Nonlethal weapons” may be lethal; see “Can new arms cut casualties?” by Brad Knickerbocker, Christian Science Monitor, 11 March 2003:  “Other experts caution that such weapons can in fact be deadly. ‘It should be noted that nonlethality is an aspiration rather than an assured outcome,’ says Loren Thompson of the Lexington Institute in Arlington, Va., who has recently completed a study of directed-energy weapons. ‘Some people may be killed by the direct or indirect effects of ‘nonlethal’ weapons.’”
      • [Following article pertains to infrasound not as a weapon per se but note the effects described:]  “Sounds like terror in the air” in Sydney Morning Herald, 9 September 2003:  “British scientists have shown in a controlled experiment that the extreme bass sound known as infrasound produces a range of bizarre effects in people, including anxiety, extreme sorrow and chills…Their unusual experiences included feeling uneasy or sorrowful, getting chills down the spine or nervous feelings of revulsion or fear…Animals such as elephants also use infrasound to communicate over long distances or as weapons to repel foes.”
      • US Electromagnetic Weapons and Human Rights by Peter Phillips, Lew Brown and Bridget Thornton (Sonoma State University for Project Censored), December 2006; Walter Cronkite on Project Censored:  “Project censored is one of the organizations that we should listen to, to be assured that our newspapers and our broadcast outlets are practicing thorough and ethical journalism.”
      • “Non-Lethal/Non Lethal Weapons 2008”, a compilation of references by Debra Alexander for Maxwell Air Force Base
      • Website of European Working Group, Non-Lethal Weapons
      • Non-Lethal Weapons information at Global Security’s web site
    • Articles available at Lay Institute
    • Resources on Systems of Surveillance (both non-electronic and electronic)
    • A pair of early publicly disclosed examples of electromagnetic waves as a weapon:
    • A pair of early publicly disclosed examples of electromagnetism for remote neurological manipulation:
      • E. Chaffe and R. Light, “A Method for Remote Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System”, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, Vol. 7 (1934), pp. 83-128, was a pioneering article and is still cited by various modern medical texts (Neuroengineering by Daniel J. DiLorenzo and Joseph D. Bronzino [CRC Press, 2007], p. 1-13; Electrical Stimulation and the Relief of Pain by Brian A. Simpson [Elsevier Health Sciences, 2003], p. 15; New Perspectives in Sacral Nerve Stimulation by Udo Jonas and Volker Grunewald [Informa Health Care, 2002], p. 7).  In their experiments Chaffe and Light used one electrical coil embedded within the test subject’s body and a second coil within a yard of the test subject.  Excerpts from the article:
        • “The germ of a new bio-electric relationship seems to have been demonstrated by Feser, 9 who reports the successful transmission of radio waves to an exposed nerve-muscle preparation, without the use of any receiving ‘pick-up’ mechanism other than the nerve itself”; footnote 9 refers to an article by J. Feser (in German) from 1930. (P. 89)
        • “The dramatic duplication of the picture of epilepsy during remotely controlled stimulation of the cerebral cortex has thrown emphasis to the possibilities of restudying other neurological functions.” (P. 120)
        • Excitation of a pure motor nerve (hypoglossal) in a dog by induction of current into a secondary coil implanted in the neck…As the frequency of discharge* was increased the muscle still gave individual contractions for each impulse given, until the rate reached 15 per second. Above this rate the response appeared to be tetanic in nature.” (Pp. 121-123)
        • Stimulation of the vagus nerve (thoracic portion) of a dog with simultaneous collection of the gastric juice…Two minutes after the stimulation was started gastric juice began to flow from the tube and for fifteen minutes the flow continued intermittently, without the necessity for application of negative pressure to the tube…A second period of stimulation was carried out from 10: 50 to 10: 55 at a rate of 18 impulses per second. On this occasion it was noted that violent peristalsis began two minutes after stimulation was started and continued for 20 minutes.” (P. 123)
        • Stimulation of the motor cortex of a Mocacus rhesus…So soon as the circuit was thrown into operation, the animal’s right arm went into adduction and extension, and the reaction was so pronounced that the current was stopped after only two seconds of stimulation had been received. The right arm continued spastic, and developed a tremor which spread in Jacksonian style to involve the entire right side of the body. The seizure lasted nearly a minute, but recovery was fairly prompt.” (Pp. 124-125)
        • Investigation of the left premotor area of cortex in a Macacus rhesus…Almost immediately there began a series of chewing and tonguewagging motions…The stimulus was stopped after about two minutes, but the seizure persisted for a minute longer, and involved the left side of the body as well as the right side…He had voided at the beginning of stimulation.” (Pp. 125-126)
        • Experiments with a monkey in which an electrode was inserted in the hypothalamus…the animal was stimulated for a period of ten minutes at 10 impulses per second. At first he was restless and moved about the cage, then he became quiet, and yawned several times. There was no urination, pupillary change, nor bowel movements. He remained quiet until the end of the period. Two minutes after stimulation ceased the animal became drowsy, and his head drooped. It was difficult to arouse him with a stick, although five minutes later he woke up for a short time and took interest in his surroundings. His head was soon down again, and for 5 minutes he appeared to be asleep. He was finally aroused by a noise, but not until 30 minutes after the stimulation did he become bright and active.” (P. 126)
      • Hal Becker’s device for subliminal messages, one of whose uses was to disseminate anti-shoplifting messages by stores as described in “Secret Voices”, Time magazine, 10 September 1979.  See also:
        • 26 November 1980:  Reference to Becker’s patent (3,278,676 from October 1966) in description of US Patent 4,395,600 (“Auditory subliminal message system and method”)
        • 6 August 1984:  “In a written testimony before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials of the House Committee on Science and Technology, Dr. David Tyler, a co-patent holder of a system for presenting audio subliminal messages, discussed the successful use of subliminal messages to discourage unwanted behavior. For example, subliminal messages reinforcing honesty which were broadcast at retail stores reduced shoplifting by thirty to eighty percent (30-80%) with a bottom line savings to retailers of $1,200 or $10,000 per store. United States Congress, House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials, Subliminal Communication Technology: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, 98th Congress, 2nd Session, pp. 95-100 (Aug. 6, 1984) (testimony of David L. Tyler, President, Proactive Systems, Inc.).” (From the Subliminal Technologies’ website.)  See Subliminal communication technology : hearing before the Subcommittee on Transportation, Aviation, and Materials of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-eighth Congress, second session, August 6, 1984 (Washington:  GPO, 1984); David Tyler was co-inventor of the system and method in Patent 4,395,600 above.
        • 1985:  “Midwest Research Report on Subliminal Messages in Retail Stores” by LA Conner and LA Conner is part of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service Library collection:  “Subliminal (both subaudible and subvisual) messages should be tried in retail businesses to help prevent employee theft and shoplifting, given their probable effectiveness and the absence of any legal or ethical arguments against them.”
    • “Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Microwave Exposure” by John A. D’Andrea, Eleanor R. Adair, and John O. de Lorge, Bioelectromagnetics Supplement 6:S39-S62 (2003).  Excerpts:
      • “Exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields can lead to changes in the behavior of humans and laboratory animals and to other effects. These effects range from the perceptions of warmth and sound to high body temperatures that can result in grand mal seizures or death. Between these two extremes, the behavior of laboratory animals can be either perturbed or stopped dead in its tracks.” (P. S40)
      • “A short term RF exposure can produce a thermal burden in an organism that may cause behavioral and other effects, some of which may be harmful [Adair, 1983]. Justesen [1979] has described several classes of behavioral effects of such exposure that include perception, aversion, work perturbation, work stoppage, endurance, and convulsions.” (P. S43)
      • “Observations of the animals during the RF exposure tests revealed increased locomotor activity, frequent urination and defecation, and the spreading of saliva over the fur, all indicants of thermal stress.” (P. S48)
      • “One of the first demonstrations of behavioral disruption during microwave exposure was conducted by de Lorge [1976], as described above, with rhesus monkeys trained on an observing task, which is similar to vigilance behavior in humans. This experiment demonstrated that disruption of observing behavior was associated with a rectal temperature increase, during microwave exposure, by 1 8C or more. This temperature increase was highly correlated with a whole body SAR near 4 W/kg. This protocol, measuring behavioral disruption, has proven to be one of the most sensitive and repeatable measures of potentially harmful biological effects.” (P. S57)
      • “Research conducted during the past three decades has shown that exposure of laboratory animals to RFR can cause a variety of behavioral changes. These changes range from subtle effects such as perception of microwave pulse-induced sound to behavioral disruption and complete cessation of behavioral performance due to hyperthermia…RF fields can serve as either positive or negative reinforcers and can disrupt simple as well as more complex behaviors associated with cognitive capabilities. Thermal changes seem to account for all of the reported behavioral disruption effects of absorbed RF energy across the limited frequency range explored.” (P. S57)
    • Hazards of naturally occurring electromagnetic fields have also been documented.  For two examples, see Neil Cherry, “Schumann Resonances, a plausible biophysical mechanism for the human health effects of Solar/Geomagnetic Activity” in Natural Hazards 26 (2002), pp. 279-331:  “…A key scientific question is, what factor is it in the natural environment that causes the observed biological and physical effects? The effects include altered blood pressure and melatonin, increased cancer, reproductive, cardiac and neurological disease and death…”; and Michael Berk, Seetal Dodd, Margaret Henry, “Do ambient electromagnetic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the relationship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide” in Bioelectromagnetics, Volume 27, Issue 2 (2005), pp. 151-155
    • The dangers of subliminal messaging are openly acknowledged by the US Code of Federal Regulations:
      • Title 27 (Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms), Part 5 (Labeling and Advertising of Distilled Spirits), Subpart H (Advertising of Distilled Spirits), §5.65 Prohibited practices:  “(h) Deceptive advertising techniques. Subliminal or similar techniques are prohibited. ‘Subliminal or similar techniques,’ as used in this part, refers to any device or technique that is used to convey, or attempts to convey, a message to a person by means of images or sounds of a very brief nature that cannot be perceived at a normal level of awareness.”
      • Title 27 (Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms), Part 7 (Labeling and Advertising of Malt Beverages), Subpart  F (Advertising of Malt Beverages), § 7.54 Prohibited statements (same text as above, under (h) Deceptive advertising techniques).
      • Title 47 (Telecommunication), Part 73 (Radio Broadcast Services), §73.4250 (Subliminal perception):  “(a) See Public Notice, FCC 74–78, dated January 24, 1974. 44 FCC 2d, 1016; 39 FR 3714, January 29, 1974.  (b) See FCC Information Bulletin, “Subliminal Projection”, dated November 1977.  [44 FR 36389, June 22, 1979]”
    • Reporting about externally induced neurological manipulation and nonlethal weapons in mainstream media is often shallow, lacking historical perspective, disparaging, and uninformed about the latest technological developments, for example “Weird Russian Mind-Control Research Behind Homeland Security Contract” in Wired, 20 September 2007, although the widow of Russia’s “father” of development of externally induced neurological manipulation (Igor Smirnov), Rusalkina, is quoted therein as saying that psychotronic weapons “are far more dangerous than nuclear weapons”; see also Douglas Pasternak’s articles in U.S. News and World Report (“A softer touch:  The U.S. is developing weapons that would subdue but not kill”, 3 November 2002; “Wonder Weapons:  The Pentagon’s quest for nonlethal arms is amazing.  But is it smart?”, 29 June 1997) and “Reading Your Mind” by Leslie Stahl for CBS News, 5 January 2009 (video and transcript)
    • Neuroscientific developments have started to influence legal cases:  “Complex brain imaging is making waves in court” by Reyhan Harmanci, San Francisco Chronicle, 17 October 2008:  “Over the past decade, researchers have made huge advances in neuroscience, developing brain-imaging techniques that show not just the structure of the brain but its inner workings. According to experts in a new field called neurolaw, the effect of these breakthroughs on the legal system could be revolutionary…Precedent does exist for the admittance of fMRI [functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging] scans in court. In 2005, the Supreme Court admitted fMRI evidence in Roper vs. Simmons, a case involving a minor on death row, to help establish that an adolescent brain works differently than an adult one. While Justice Anthony Kennedy didn’t explicitly cite fMRI scans in his majority opinion against executing people under 18, many experts think it was an influencing factor…Neuroscience has served as evidence in courts abroad. In September, a 24-year-old woman was found guilty in India’s Maharashtra state court of murdering her fiance, and the presiding judge cited a ‘brain fingerprinting’ scan called the brain electrical oscillations signature test as proof of ‘experiential knowledge’ of the crime. BEOS purports to identify brain activation patterns for memory. U.S. experts condemned the ruling because no peer-reviewed testing of BEOS has been made available…Meanwhile, bioethicists like Emory University’s Paul Root Wolpe warn that ‘mental privacy’ and the Fifth Amendment right to withhold self-incriminating evidence are potentially threatened by neuroimaging.  In particular, researchers point to prisoners of war on terror-related activities as potential subjects for the fMRI lie-detecting methods. Greely and Wolpe agree that there is ‘little doubt’ the U.S. government has been studying them….”
    • Note that the US Invention Secrecy Act of 1951 allows various agencies of the federal government to issue a secrecy order, which can prevent the issuance of a patent, can require that an invention stay secret, can limit foreign patents from being filed, and can prohibit the public release of technology in the patent application.
    • 8 July 1959: A “Joint order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR and the Ministry of Public Health of the USSR” was decreed in Moscow, according to the Russian-born Baranov family of researchers (whose primary research concerns the use of biological and chemical agents against the population in the USSR/Russia): “…individuals speaking about cerebral psychotronic weapons are subject to isolation in special facilities with subsequent forced medical treatment.”
    • 25 June 1987:  As “the only Supreme Court case to address the application of the Nuremberg Code to experimentation sponsored by the U.S. government, UNITED STATES v. STANLEY, 483 U.S. 669 (1987) was decided against the plaintiff, thus rejecting the applicability of the Nuremberg Code in the US with respect to human testing, contrary to popular misconception.  Note that “many of these experiments were justified by national security considerations and the Cold War”, according to George Annas, researcher in human experimentation and biomedical ethics, in “The Nuremberg Code in U.S. Courts: Ethics versus Expediency,” in George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, eds., The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), p. 218.
    • 22 January 1997:  Reacting against the disclosure of the US Federal Government’s human ionizing radiation experimentation and the Willowbrook scandal (see below), Senator John Glenn proposed the Human Research Subject Protection Act (see his remarks by searching “Human Research Subject Protection Act”, selecting “STATEMENTS ON INTRODUCED BILLS AND JOINT RESOLUTIONS (Senate – January 22, 1997)”, then clicking on the links for “Mr. GLENN” on p. S645 at the Library of Congress’s website:  “…Under current rule and executive order, it is possible to waive informed consent and IRB review for classified research…”), but the law failed to pass
    • 14 May 1997:  “’Unchecked’ Experiments on People Raises Concern” by Sheryl G. Stolberg, 14 May 1997, New York Times:  “’We have better information about animal experiments than we do about human experiments,’ said R. Alto Charo, of the President Clinton’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission…On Capitol Hill, Representative Christopher Shays, Republican of Connecticut, convened a hearing last week to determine the scope of lapses and violations of ethics in experiments. He was startled by the testimony, including accounts of ethics panels, institutional review boards, or I.R.B.’s, set up as profit-making ventures to evaluate proposed experiments for research groups that pay them. ‘I found it amazing,’ Mr. Shays said. ‘I am struck by the fact that we have I.R.B.’s that can be created by anyone, that we don’t even know how many there are. I think the more we get into this the more we are going to realize how casual this process really is.’  Moreover, certain privately financed research is not bound by the rules.”
    • 28 January 1999:  European Parliament passed Resolution A4-0005/1999, paragraph (S) 27 of which calls “for an international convention introducing a global ban on all developments and deployments of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings” (see also reference on p. 49 of Activities 06/A-2004 by the Directorate for the Planning of Parliamentary Business), but this remained a resolution
    • 2000:  Leading ethicist Jonathan Moreno (Professor of Ethics at the University of Pennsylvania and past president of the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities) claims in Undue Risk:  Secret State Experiments on Humans (New York:  W.H. Freeman, 2000, p. 5) that “Today and ever since the end of the World War II, the universal sensitivity about human experiments is coupled with the fact that they are probably unavoidable in the real world of national security.” [Emphasis added.]
    • 2001:  “President Vladimir V. Putin signed into law a bill making it illegal to employ ‘electromagnetic, infrasound, radiators’ and other weapons of ‘psychotronic influence’ with intent to cause harm. An official note attached to the bill said Russian scientists were trying to create ‘effective methods of influence of humans at a distance.’” (see “Giving Until It Hurts” by Kim Murphy, Los Angeles Times, 29 January 2005)
    • 3 March 2002:  “The Ethics of Experiments; Scholars Fear Post-Attack Secrecy” by Peter Hardin in Richmond Times-Dispatch:  “[Jonathan D. Moreno] pointed to a December news report that President Bush had given the secretary of health and human services the authority to classify information as secret. Moreno said that could allow the Defense Department or CIA to undertake secret human experiments with the HHS.  Federal scientists justified experimentation on patients at the Lynchburg Colony in 1942 because they judged the search for a safe yellow fever vaccine ‘of utmost national urgency,’ [Paul A. Lombardo] noted. He drew from a November article in The Richmond Times-Dispatch.  A flawed vaccine had been contaminated with the hepatitis B virus. It sickened tens of thousands of soldiers and killed 100. At Lynchburg, the researchers used the faulty vaccine and other material to inoculate patients in what Lombardo called an ‘absolutely secret’ study with an ‘absolutely vulnerable’ group of people.”
    • 1 January 2004:  House laws passed in 2003 (4513 and 4514) went into effect in the State of Michigan (US) against the manufacture, delivery, or possession of any harmful electronic or electromagnetic device, however no invocation of that law seems to have been reported
    • 15 July 2004:  “An Act Relative to the Possession of Electronic Weapons” is passed in Massachusetts, but no invocation of that law seems to have been reported
    • 21 October 2004:  Notice to Members by the European Parliament regarding Petition 1168/2003 by Nathalie Luthold (French), on behalf of the Association opposing abuse of psycho-technologies, bearing 115 signatures opposing the abuse of directed energy weapons:  No action undertaken
    • 17 September 2005:  “An Act Regarding Criminal Use of an Electronic Weapon” (Sec. 1. 17-A MRSA §1004) takes effect in Maine, but no invocation of that law seems to have been reported
    • 6 November 2006:  Secretary of the Navy Instruction 3900.39D, section 7(a)(2), page 9 states “The Under Secretary of the Navy (UNSECNAV) is the Approval Authority for research involving … severe or unusual intrusions, either physical or psychological, on human subjects (such as consciousness-altering drugs or mind-control techniques).” (see entire instruction at Federation of American Scientists’ website)
    • 30 April 2008:  Testimony by Steven Aftergood of the Federation of American Scientists before the Subcommittee of the Constitution of the US Senate’s Committee on the Judiciary pointed out that protection of human subjects in experimentation might well be undermined by a secret opinion by the Department of Justice’s Office of Legal Counsel (OLC):  “One secret OLC opinion of particular significance, identified last year by Senator Whitehouse, holds that executive orders, which are binding on executive branch agencies and are published in the Federal Register, can be unilaterally abrogated by the President without public notice… Executive orders are used to define some of the most basic policy positions of the United States, on everything from assassination of foreign leaders to domestic intelligence activities to protection of human subjects in scientific research. But now it appears that none of these policies are securely established. In fact, any of them may already have been violated (or, rather, ‘waived’) without notice.”  Even in its original form before possible secret vitiation of its protection of human test subjects involved in research by the Intelligence Community, the part of the executive order that governed such (Clause 2.10 of Executive Order 12333) may not have been as protective as commonly believed:  The penultimate clause (3.5) states in part that “Nothing contained herein or in any procedures promulgated hereunder is intended to confer any substantive or procedural right or privilege on any person or organization.”  Furthermore, in his testimony Aftergood mentioned the fact that presidential directives can be secret (“National Security Presidential Directives”, of which President Bush had issued 56 by late January 2008, most of which remain secret), and that such classified directives were not a novelty of the Bush Administration.  Consequently, not only can the supposed protections offered by the Code of Federal Regulations to human test subjects be bypassed but experiments involving unprotected humans can remain secret:
      • Title 45 (“Public Welfare”), Subtitle A (“Department of Health and Human Services”), § 46 (“Protection of Human Subjects”).101 (“To what does this policy apply?”), (i):  “Unless otherwise required by law, department or agency heads may waive the applicability of some or all of the provisions of this policy to specific research activities or classes of research activities otherwise covered by this policy. Except when otherwise required by statute or Executive Order, the department or agency head shall forward advance notices of these actions to the Office for Human Research Protections, Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), or any successor office, and shall also publish them in the FEDERAL REGISTER or in such other manner as provided in department or agency procedures.”  In other words, the “protection of human subjects” can be easily waived by “department or agency heads”, and even the reporting requirement in such actions can be nullified if “required by statute or Executive Order”.  Since national security presidential directives “commit the Nation and its resources as if they were the law of the land” and can be secret, there would, in that case, be no public trace of such experimentation.







  • 1982? – present day:  US federal government’s Main Core database “contains personal and financial data of millions of U.S. citizens believed to be threats to national security…As of 2008 there are reportedly eight million Americans listed in the database as possible threats,[6] often for trivial reasons,[7] whom the government may choose to track, question, or detain in a time of crisis.[8]” (emphasis added; see; see also “NSA’s Domestic Spying Grows As Agency Sweeps Up Data” on 10 March 2008 in the Wall Street Journal)
  • 11-17 January 1993:  “US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology” by Barbara Opall, Defense News, pp. 4, 29:  “…Pioneered by the government funded Department of Psycho-Correction at the Moscow Medical Academy, acoustic psycho-correction involves the transmission of specific commands via static or white noise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions. Experts said laboratory demonstrations have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute.  Moreover, decades of research and investment of untold millions of rubles in the process of psycho-correction has produced the ability to alter behavior on willing and unwilling subjects, the experts add…The Russian authors note that ‘World opinion is not ready for dealing appropriately with the problems coming from the possibility of direct access to the human mind.’…”
  • January 1995:  Report of an Independent Task Force on “Non-Lethal Technologies:  Military Options and Technologies”, Council on Foreign Relations, mentions that despite “significant efforts” by Russia, the UK, France, Italy, and Israel “to develop non-lethal capabilities” (in addition to the US), the task force recommends that “Some research and perhaps deployment should be undertaken in secret, both to attempt to limit proliferation and to retain the benefits of surprise.” (p. 2 of Executive Summary)
  • 3 October 1995:  Army Field Manual No. 34-60 (Counterintelligence), Glossary, p. 13:  “Electronic Attack (EA) – That division of electronic warfare involving the use of the electromagnetic or directed energy to attack personnel, facilities, or equipment with the intent of degrading, neutralizing, or destroying enemy combat capability. Formerly known as electronic countermeasures (ECM).”
  • 1998: US Army Addendum to the Nonlethal Technologies—Worldwide (NGIC-1147-101-98) document regarding “microwave auditory effect, microwave hearing effect, Frey effect, artificial telepathy, and/or any device/weapon which uses and/or causes such effect; and any covert or undisclosed use of hypnosis”, declassified in December 2006 as a result of a Freedom of Information Act request by litigant Donald Friedman, and subsequently published, including Popular Science’s website
  • 3rd Quarter 1999:  Article by Rauni-Leena Luukanen-Kilde, MD (former Chief Medical Officer of Lapland in Finland), on “Microchip Implants, Mind Control, and Cybernetics” in English and in original Finnish
  • 2004:  NATO Research and Technology Organisation, Non-Lethal Weapons and Future Peace Enforcement Operations, RTO-TR-SAS-040, Chapter 5, p. 4 states “In order to ensure that NATO forces retain the ability to accomplish missions, it will be important that nations participating in NATO operations remain vigilant against the development of specific legal regimes which unnecessarily limit the ability to use NLWs.” (quoted on p. 37, citation p. 53 of Occasional Paper No. 3 of Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project (BNLWRP), Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK)
  • 4 October 2004:  US Patent filed for an Electromagnetic Personnel Interdiction Control Method and System, as a result of DOD Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Contract No. M67S54-04-C-1013 awarded by the U.S. Marine Corps Systems Command:
    “This invention relates generally to non-destructive stun weapons, and. more particularly to a non-destructive stun type weapon that utilizes beamed electromagnetic RF energy (Lorentz Force) that disrupts the normal mechanical transduction process and/or the chemical engine by which sound, position and other sensory input are converted to messages by nerve cells and processed by the brain to produce complete disorientation and confusion to temporarily and remotely render a human powerless to resist arrest or subjugation…There is a long-felt need in the military and in law enforcement for a non-destructive stun type weapon that would remotely incapacitate a hostile war fighter, terrorist, or criminal suspect ineffective for a period of time without permanent damage.”
      “What we have here are the beginnings of something designed to enable robots to hunt down humans like a pack of dogs. Once the software is perfected we can reasonably anticipate that they will become autonomous and become armed. 
      We can also expect such systems to be equipped with human detection and tracking devices including sensors which detect human breath and the radio waves associated with a human heart beat. These are technologies already developed.”
  • 14 November 2008:  The CIA continues its influence and subversion of public media, in this case cinema – “Body of Lies:  The CIA’s involvement with US film-making” by Matthew Alford and Robbie Graham, the Guardian:  “…As the former CIA man Bob Baer – whose books on his time with the agency were the basis for Syriana – told us: ‘All these people that run studios – they go to Washington, they hang around with senators, they hang around with CIA directors, and everybody’s on board.’ There is documentary evidence for his claims. Luigi Luraschi was the head of foreign and domestic censorship for Paramount in the early 1950s. And, it was recently discovered, he was also working for the CIA…The CIA didn’t just offer guidance to film-makers, however. It even offered money. In 1950, the agency bought the rights to George Orwell’s Animal Farm, and then funded the 1954 British animated version of the film. Its involvement had long been rumoured, but only in the past decade have those rumours been substantiated, and the tale of the CIA’s role told in Daniel Leab’s book Orwell Subverted.”  The article later mentions a suspicious murder of a US screenwriter planning to direct his first movie.
  • 10 May 2009:  “Brain scanning may be used in security checks” by Owen Bowcott, the Guardian:  “Distinctive brain patterns could become the latest subject of biometric scanning after EU researchers successfully tested technology to verify identities for security checks…”
  • 14 May 2009: “Pentagon Preps Soldier Telepathy Push” by Katie Drummond, Wired:  “The agency’s budget for the next fiscal year includes $4 million to start up a program called Silent Talk. The goal is to ‘allow user-to-user communication on the battlefield without the use of vocalized speech through analysis of neural signals.’  That’s on top of the $4 million the Army handed out last year to the University of California to investigate the potential for computer-mediated telepathy.  Before being vocalized, speech exists as word-specific neural signals in the mind. Darpa wants to develop technology that would detect these signals of  ‘pre-speech,’ analyze them, and then transmit the statement to an intended interlocutor. Darpa plans to use EEG to read the brain waves. It’s a technique they’re also testing in a project to devise mind-reading binoculars that alert soldiers to threats faster the conscious mind can process them.”
  • 21 May 2009:  “FCC’s Warrantless Household Searches Alarm Experts” by Ryan Singel, Wired:  “You may not know it, but if you have a wireless router, a cordless phone, remote car-door opener, baby monitor or cellphone in your house, the FCC claims the right to enter your home without a warrant at any time of the day or night in order to inspect it…”
  • 24 September 2009:  “They’re torturing me, Honduras’ Manuel Zelaya claims” by Frances Robles, Miami Herald:  Honduras President “Zelaya was deposed at gunpoint on June 28 and slipped back into his country on Monday, just two days before he was scheduled to speak before the United Nations. He sought refuge at the Brazilian Embassy, where Zelaya said he is being subjected to toxic gases and radiation that alter his physical and mental state…”
  • 13 November 2009:  “Welcome Home, War! How America’s Wars Are Systematically Destroying Our Liberties” by Alfred W. McCoy, The Nation:  “Think of our counterinsurgency wars abroad as so many living laboratories for the undermining of a democratic society at home, a process historians of such American wars can tell you has been going on for a long, long time. Counterintelligence innovations like centralized data, covert penetration and disinformation developed during the Army’s first protracted pacification campaign in a foreign land–the Philippines from 1898 to 1913–were repatriated to the United States during World War I, becoming the blueprint for an invasive internal security apparatus that persisted for the next half century…”







In the eyes of posterity it will inevitably seem that, in safeguarding our freedom, we destroyed it. The vast clandestine apparatus we built up to prove our enemies’ resources and intentions only served in the end to confuse our own purposes; that practice of deceiving others for the good of the state led infallibly to our deceiving ourselves; and that vast army of clandestine personnel built up to execute these purposes were soon caught up in the web of their own sick fantasies, with disastrous consequences for them and us.

Malcolm Muggeridge, 1966 

Frequently Asked Questions

Written by rudy2

August 15, 2010 at 05:47

One Response

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  1. Is there an English translation of the Gresch book, Unsichtbare Ketten? I tried finding it online; so far, no.

    Have you read it? In English?

    Barb Sliger

    March 22, 2011 at 21:12

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